A Look Back at the VR Design of Archangel: Hellfire

This blog post is about Archangel: Hellfire, a competitive multiplayer VR game that I worked on at Skydance Interactive during 2017-2018. We were given the task of creating a follow up to our single player VR narrative game, Archangel. We took some of the art assets from the original title but programmed and redesigned most of the game systems from the ground up. After a year of hard work, we were about ready to wrap up Archangel: Hellfire.

Archangel: Hellfire is a valuable case study because we were forced to push against the grain of standard VR first person shooter games. Hellfire’s premise (as a cockpit-based mech game) allowed us to focus a lot of our development time on game design rather than VR specific feature development. By dialing back the amount of simulation and touch control based interactions, and iterating on combat mechanics, movement systems, and multiplayer gameplay experience, we discovered several valuable insights into VR game development in general.

Design Principles

Every time new hardware technology comes out, developers are pressured to prove its worth by designing products that showcase what it can do. The problem is, there is no truth in the idea that using all of the new features of hardware makes for good software. Sometimes it does, but in the case of a VR game, we are dealing with such a big jump from a regular video game that everyone stands to benefit from taking a step back and contemplating what is truly advantageous about gaming in a VR headset. With so many new options for things that you can do in VR, it is easy to let your imagination run wild and think of a million different things you can simulate (steering a wheel, shooting a gun, flipping a burger, petting a cat, bowling a ball etc…) However, perhaps it is better to momentarily forget all of that, and think about what it takes to make a great game that uses only a few features afforded by VR and mostly aims to be something people actually want to play more than once.

Popular culture gives a wildly inaccurate representation about the capabilities of VR, as well as the function of VR in a contemporary setting. Thus, people tend to gravitate toward the marvelous aspects of VR and have unrealistic expectations about what it should be. You will hear over and over “The technology will get there.” But if you think about it, the current technology is pretty great if you just use it correctly. Films like Avatar and Ready Player One plant the idea that the ultimate gameplay experience is one in which you inhabit a virtual body which feels and functions exactly as your own – and then you engage in warfare. In this way pure VR is the truest simulation of the most treacherous of human experiences. But you must ask yourself – is this really better than what other experiences have to offer? We already have sports: football, lacrosse, paintball, hockey, and these activities already give all of the violent adrenaline you could ever ask for. Reading a great book can be more immersive than any technological experience on earth, and it requires zero technology. Given this, what can we achieve with the VR technology we have today without assuming that a future version of VR would be automatically better?

Did we already run out of ways to create great games on PC, console, and mobile? Market trends would suggest not. 2017 revealed a complete reinvention of the first person shooter, PUBG and the battle royale style. By simply changing around a few systems, Brendan Greene and his team at PUBG Corp were able to take the world’s gaming community by storm. People are completely content playing games on their desktop in their living rooms. There is no real market demand for something more immersive than screen based gameplay. When contributing ideas to Archangel: Hellfire, I always kept this in mind. We were creating a game that not only competes against other VR titles, but also regular first person shooters like PUBG. Why would someone want to try our game when they could just keep playing Fortnite? Being in VR is not enough. 

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At first experience it seems like walking around in a room (standard HTC Vive room scale VR) with a headset on your face and getting to interact with a 3D virtual space is the coolest thing ever – you feel like you are in another world! You can crouch to dodge bullets flying at you. You can pick up a coffee cup and drink it. You can throw a plate at your grandpa. You have never experienced that before, and it feels so visceral! Who would have thought this could be possible? Except unless you are at a location based experience like “The Void” you realize you are confined to a 40 square foot virtual cell which limits your ability to travel through virtual space unless by awkward teleportation or weird floating. If you look at the history of video games, the vast majority of them involve traversing space in an engaging way. Room scale VR immediately revokes that possibility. The novelty quickly wears off. Games tend to be based on moving through levels using a joystick or directional pad. Movement and world exploration is a core part of engaging gameplay, and the first thing room scale VR hardware did was make that a low priority by necessitating that your physical space (which is more often than not limited to a tiny room) match the virtual space in order for movement to be intuitive. The solution to this situation is free movement VR experiences with deep game mechanics that focus less on VR quirks and more on gameplay. Thanks to the Oculus Rift touch controllers, we were able to able to execute this solution in Archangel: Hellfire.

Movement and Motion Sickness

In the first several months of development, the biggest challenge that we faced was the implementation of a movement scheme that was fun and did not make the player sick. The original Archangel game was a rail shooter so there was no user-controlled movement. When we were given the opportunity to make Archangel: Hellfire, we had to design and program a movement scheme from scratch. Initially, we were going to try to make a control scheme that worked well for PSVR, Vive, and Oculus Rift. Because the PSVR touch controllers do not have joysticks or directional pads, we were trying to design a way to handle motion via waypoints and other non traditional modes of input. After 3 months of experimental development, many arguments, and iterations on different waypoint systems to accommodate the PSVR touch controllers, we gave up, and decided not to include PSVR in our designs. Our executives noted that the waypoint controls were awkward, and not reactive enough for people accustomed to FPS style movement. Because of its joysticks, the Oculus Rift handled great. The Vive would handle about the same as the Rift but slightly worse due to the controller’s touch pads and lack of accessible buttons.

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Our entire development cycle was focused on the Oculus Rift. The game would be playable on Vive. But by focusing on the Oculus Rift, whose controllers are most similar to most console controllers, we were able to line up our sights on making an intuitive control scheme. It was about 6 months into development when we settled on what our game’s core design would be, and that is when development became quite fun.

At the time, our game is unique because you move fast, jump, fly, and spin all over the place and you never feel nauseous. We spent a lot of time trying to make the best movement scheme possible, and we were constantly fighting against the specter of nausea invalidating our designs. Nonetheless, by disregarding popular opinions, taking risks, and making thousands of small adjustments, we achieved something nausea safe and highly functional. 

Gameplay and Combat Design

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Edmund Burke, an 18th Century Scottish Philosopher and Politician, wrote about beauty and the sublime. One of his claims was that a metaphorical poem about hell will emotionally affect a human more than a perfectly detailed painting of hell. It is a general premise that giving a clear picture of something is actually less pleasing to the human passions than an obscure (verbal) depiction. Obscurity ignites emotions more powerfully than does clarity.

When developing VR features, the granular control afforded by touch controllers prompted every single first person shooter developer to add in hyper realistic, gesture and motion based gun mechanics. You could pump your shotgun by moving your hands to and fro, manually place a new clip into your gun, rotate the chamber on your revolver in order to empty all of the casings, aim down the scope of your gun while you awkwardly bump your headset into the controller. In short, the developers of many of these games tried to make it feel like as close to handling a real gun as it would be in real life. They were simulating what it was like to use a gun. This was certainly endearing to those who knew how guns worked, but it eluded a very particular point – simulation is usually not the thing that sells. In contrast, simplicity is entertaining and accessible to everyone. I would argue that Burke’s claim of the clarity vs obscurity is analogous to simulation vs. representation in game development. Coming up with a good representation of something in a game often ends up being more entertaining than simulating its functionality with exact precision to reality. In Hellfire, we skipped a lot of potential VR weapon simulation so that we could throw players straight into the action, so that we could toss a stick of dynamite on their laps.

VR needs accessibility and replay-ability. When I played most of the gun simulator VR games, I could hardly figure out how to kill an enemy, let alone traverse through the menu screens. This made me realize what I wanted for Archangel: Hellfire: get into the action as fast as possible, make the game so intuitive that a first time player will effortlessly rack up kills and feel like a boss. No simulation or gestural interference necessary.

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There is a quote by Quentin Tarantino that goes something like this “When I make movies, I light a stick of dynamite and throw it in the viewer’s lap.” Ingmar Bergman said something similar, “My films must always retain the purpose of entertainment, even at the peak of their ingenuity.” I like these quotes because at the end of the day, video games are also an industrial art form and must be profitable and entertaining in order to persist as a medium.

When we take a step back and look at the top selling first person shooter franchises in history (Halo, Call of Duty, Counter-Strike) they did not simulate anything. Tap a button to reload, and use a crosshair to see where your bullet is going to go. You do not get a crosshair in real life, yet every single great first person shooter uses one because it is a great representation of how to aim a gun. Adding VR gun simulation is sacrificing a lot of space in our innovation economy because it is different from prior successes. If you are going to make your game about gun simulation, there isn’t going to be a lot of room or time to add in anything else unique or interesting. How much bang for your buck are you getting out of a unique feature? We decided that gun simulation was the least important fun factor in our game, so we did not even attempt it. Like Archangel, Archangel: Hellfire uses on screen crosshairs that project from the touch controllers out into the world. Even though you never get to hold a gun, Archangel: Hellfire is more similar to gun based console shooters like Call of Duty and Halo than any of the other VR games because it represents shooting instead of simulating it. We were fortunate that having a mech game essentially forced us down this path due to the fact that you are in a cockpit instead of on foot. Admittedly, shooting a gun in VR is enjoyable, but not having to worry about gun handling in Archangel: Hellfire allowed us to elaborate on other aspects of game design.

This concludes my review of the design behind Archangel: Hellfire. I felt compelled to share this year old writing, which would have otherwise remained unpublished on my google drive, because all of this thought leads directly into the game design of Extreme Tactical Executioners (xTx), the game I designed and programmed with Baby Rage Games. Had I not worked on Archangel directly before xTx, I would not have approached the game with the same design sentiment on “minimal VR features and maximal game features”.

Book recommendation: “No Ordinary Time”, by Doris Kearns Goodwin for an informative look into the presidency of Franklin Delano Roosevelt.

What is Ambrose Hunter?

I have started a new video game project in collaboration with my friend Dylan Cinti – this project is called Ambrose Hunter. Ambrose Hunter is the story of a video game developer slash entrepreneur making his way in Los Angeles. My friend Dylan is writing the novel portion of the project, and I am making the video game portion. There are aspects of Ambrose Hunter that can be considered experimental infotainment because they double as a professional advice – including a free eBook we will be releasing called Rules of the Gamedev.

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Dylan and I worked together on an interactive film project, Profiles of the Forgotten. Now, we are combining our talents in a new way – literature alongside a video game.

Technologically, Ambrose Hunter will be cannibalizing my past two video game projects,  reusing the driving code and character code of one and the other. I will also be adding new systems which have not been implemented in prior games, including a save system, a time system (time is always passing and there is a night/day cycle) as well as an open world exploration model – you will be able to explore areas without being forced to do anything in particular, but there will also be missions and characters for you to meet. You will also be attacked by homeless people and infested by cockroaches.

In other news, I have been working on a multiplayer update to Archangel VR at Skydance Interactive. I will be releasing a VR Game Design eBook that talks about the development process therein, going into the details of network programming, VR design, and overcoming obstacles of VR development.

Stay tuned – more updates to come.

Book Recommendation: Edmund Burke’s “A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful”, for a analytical breakdown of how the mind appreciates art and literature with a focus on the elements of terror, uncertainty, fear, and negative aspects of life as the core constituents of emotional experience.

Riot Games: “Day in the Life” Blogs

Me via text message: How do you feel about company blogs?

Friend at Riot Games: They are the single most effective recruiting tool.

http://www.riotgames.com/articles/20160707/2315/day-life-software-engineer

The above link is an exemplar of blog as recruiting tool and company culture branding. Reading through it, we find out about a smart, self-motivated engineer who works at Riot’s Hong Kong location. What is particularly effective about this blog is the way in which the man’s day is scheduled and how it reflects both his personality and the company culture, the two things that prospective employee are going to want to understand before working at Riot.

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League of Legends, Riot’s world famous title.

On the train to work, he spends time doing a little extra programming OR plays some mobile games. This shows that he is both disciplined but understands how to relax in smart ways that boost his knowledge in the games space: he is a go-getter. At work by 8am, we see that his morning is not too overwhelming, he gets communication and a bit of work in before the 10am meeting, programs hard until noon at which point he goes out to eat with his friends. When he gets back, he plays LoL against his co-workers until around two, he then goes into a deep focused programming session until around 5 at which point he works on his personal growth by researching tech or playing with Unity3D for his side project. Before heading home to his WIFE, he stops by a yoga studio to meditate.

Chalking up his day, this man only programs for two intense 2-hour sessions. The rest is communication, meetings, and leisure. You can tell that every day is extraordinarily well balanced and not oppressive in the slightest, and that this man is a highly productive, top talent, major value add who loves his job and lives an ideal life.
Riot is a billion dollar leader in today’s game industry and a forerunner of “zen” tech culture replacing the “crunch” video game culture of the past. Riot seeks to enrich the lives of its employees rather than oppress them, but the more important fact is that this could be a myth and perhaps there are many overworked employees at Riot. Nonetheless, the best game developers on earth are going to want to work at Riot simply because they heard the myth in the first place, a myth that is generated by word of mouth and blogs like this.

Book Recommendation: “The Power Elite” by C Wright Mills, for anyone interested in a fascinating look into the origin of neo-conservative beliefs.

Unity uNet [ClientRpc] to Update Color of an Object

I have been hard at work on my game Sentry Wars, a VR RTS for HTC Vive.

I struggled for several days trying to figure out how to update the Color of a Network.Spawned object, but I finally got it to work. The trick is that you have to call a ClientRpc from the Server, pass the color as a parameter, and have the color set as a [SyncVar]:

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In this case, SetMeshRendererColor is called from another script which checks isServer before calling it. GetBuildingColor in my case is just checking which player owns the building, and sets thisBuildingColor accordingly. Worked like magic. Thanks to Miller Tinkerhess and Zack Rock for helping me understand Client/Server relationships.

In other news, Mykolas and I are hard at work on our book about Pathologic, we have recently received advice from Gabe Durham of Boss Fight books regarding steps in completing a book of this sort. We are still gathering notes, reading up on additional resources, and coming to basic conclusions about how we want to approach Pathologic’s game design analysis. Mykolas found this gem: Pathologic Games as Art Manifesto which goes to show just how deliberate Ice Pick Lodge’s artistic intentions were when beginning the production of Pathologic – we definitely plan on citing this in the introduction to our book.

Book Recommendation: “Road Side Picnic” by the Strugatsky Brothers, for anyone who wants to know about an author who had a tremendous influence on Russian Film and Video Games, especially STALKER the film and STALKER Shadow of Chernobyl.

 

My New YouTube #gamedev Series

I have just started a new youtube series where I stream myself programming various game projects. For the next few months, I will be streaming the development of a Drone Simulator and the development of carPG-13.

My intention with these videos is to interact with other game developers and also reflect on my own game development process. Here is my first video:

In this video I build the basic components of a Drone Simulator. My gamedev videos will be long because I will often have to refactor and debug due to the lack of time I have in planning these videos – I am doing them on top of a full time job at a start-up. However, I will be sharing the source code for Drone Simulator which will help compensate for the lack of concision in my streams.

Book Recommendation: “The Stranger” by Albert Camus, for anyone looking for an introduction to existential fiction.

 

 

Unity3D: Creative Design Process

I recently developed a standardized design process for my team at BrainRush because we had so much design work that it needed to start being distributed to members that were not previously ordained as “designers”.

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A screenshot from one of our recent corporate games.

If you do not create a Design Document before implementing a design, you will find yourself conceptualizing solutions to problems while working rather than just quickly implementing items off of an already solved list. Determining development solutions on the fly can lead to lulls in attention of “what to do next” and make for a slower development process. Of course, a Design Document does not need to be followed in extreme detail, but it certainly serves to expedite the process of implementation and keep a nice record of work progress.

At BrainRush, we follow the Design Document template below to complete a design task: a creative task that a developer must complete before implementing a substantial feature into a game. Design Documents do not work for everyone, but in order for teams to share responsibility, trust one another’s design sensibilities, and maintain transparency of intention, it is always best to have a preconceived set of solutions and tasks before programming, modeling, and developing a feature.

Design Document Requirements:

  1. Written List of Core Design Elements
    1. All of the core pieces of programming functionality required for a design to work from start to finish
    2. All of the art assets that will be required for the design to be visually complete from start to finish
    3. All of the audio assets that will be required for the design to be aurally engaging from start to finish
  2. Synopsis
    1. A paragraph about how all of the programming, art, and audio will work together in the completed state of the design.
    2. A paragraph about major challenges or unknowns that will need to be confronted during the design process
    3. A paragraph about the goals behind the design and what the user will ideally experience with the completed version of the design
  3. Technical Design / Drawings / Flow Charts
    1. A technical design for a strictly programmatic design can be
      1. A highly detailed pseudo code word documents that outlines the functions and variables of each class
      2. A flowchart or diagram for the flow of input data, classes and their relationship to one another, and changes of state that may occur in the application.
    2. A level design, UI design, or 3D Art Design can be
      1. A hand or computer drawn sketch organizing the visual elements with text description of each element
      2. A series of images that represent the different visual states in which a design may appear and how they transition between one another
    3. NOTE: Hand drawn/written documents are encouraged and are to be photographed and uploaded to the design document in addition to written text of sections 1 and 2
  4. Submit the document for manager/peer review

 

Book Recommendation: “Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain” by Betty Edwards for anyone looking to improve their drawing and perception skills. This book provides foundational insight into how to interpret images you want to draw such that you can break them down into elements and procedures rather than feel overwhelmed by their complexity.

-Pablo Leon-Luna

What is caRPG-13?

caRPG-13 is the early prototype of a game in which human beings have all become hover cars and consume gas to survive. When a car runs out of gas, it dies just like a human would if it ran out of oxygen or food. Just like humans, these cars can also fall in love. I wanted to make a game where you felt romantic feelings toward a car while struggling to survive in an apocalyptic, resource starved, labyrinthian city. The goal of the game is to reach the top of the city and get into an escape pod before it is too late – time is always ticking and gas is always being spent.

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Encountering a Mechanic AI who can help repair broken cars

So far, all art assets in caRPG-13 are modified versions from a failed racing game I worked on a year ago – shout out to the artists who made these – you know who you are. The practical thing about using hover cars as humans is that you do not have to worry about animations of any sort, so you can focus on programming other features – in my case I am most interested in NPC AI and character interaction and how they can fit into a game’s design and emotional experience.

I am modeling caRPG-13 off of the famous game Pathologic by using resources vs time to propel the game objectives forward. However, unlike Pathologic which focuses on the simulation of a complex, evolving society, caRPG-13 will focus on character evolution over time and aim to derive narrative meaning out of non-static character interaction.

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A typical Pathologic character interaction

While Pathologic was a masterpiece, it left a little to be desired in terms of character interaction. With a whole cast of interesting characters all you could do with them was go into one of their houses and talk. These main characters did not move and could not react to you in physical space. In games, it seems that the most common way to interact with characters in a non-violent way is through quests and text trees. While these are a nice staple for storytelling, there are certainly many other ways to build relationships between characters – namely through physical action. What I want to do in caRPG-13 is experiment with a few new types of non-violent interaction between a player and NPC that may enrich the emotional consequences of player agency in the game. In my next blog post, I will talk about the romance that evolves between two lucky cars in caRPG-13. Please subscribe.

Book Recommendation: “The Death of Ivan Ilyich” by Leo Tolstoy, a novella for those who prefer to work hard and make tons of money rather than address their deeper personal issues.

-Pablo Leon-Luna